debconf is a tool to pre-configure some packages in Debian .
It allows to prepare the configuration of a package before installing it (when supported) and thus allows to answer to some questions that are usually displayed in the terminal during the installation process.

The major difficulty is obviously to find the right syntax and the questions a package can answer.

For example, for MariaDB:

root$ debconf-set-selections <<< 'mysql-server/root_password password xXXXx'
root$ debconf-set-selections <<< 'mysql-server/root_password_again password xXXXx'

Bonus, for Ansible:

- name: answering some default questions
    name: mysql-server
    question: "{{ item.question }}"
    value: "{{ item.value }}"
    vtype: password
    - question: mysql-server/root_password
      value: xXXXx
    - question: mysql-server/root_password_again
      value: xXXXx
  no_log: True